Bone fractures

Bone fractures can be the result of a sudden injury – a fall or a blow. Bone fracture can also be a symptom of serious bone disease. Regardless of the reason for the bone fracture, the same symptoms appear, such as, e.g. limitation of mobility of the limb and pain increasing with movement, swelling. Check what the causes of the bone fracture can be and what their types are.

Bone fracture is the disruption of the bone tissue with damage to surrounding tissues. Bone fractures may be open (fractures that cause the broken bone to pierce the skin) or closed (the skin and soft tissues over the fracture are intact).

Simple (only two bone fragments occur in the fracture line) or displacements of bone fragments (ie there is no contact between them).

Bone fractures can also be joint and extra-joint, transverse and spiral, and even butterfly-shaped.

Bone fractures – symptoms of bone fracture

Regardless of what type of bone fracture has occurred, similar symptoms appear, such as:

  • limitation of limb mobility
  • pain increasing when moving
  • edema
  • bleeding and bruising
  • distortion
  • unnatural positioning of the limb
  • with an open fracture a wound appears, from which bone fragments can protrude

Breaking large bones can lead to shock. It is the result of disturbance of homeostasis of the organism, which is caused by insufficient blood flow through tissues and organs, and hence – insufficient oxygen supply to the cells, their malnutrition.

Bone fractures – causes. Pathological fractures

Pathological fracture is the fracture of a weakened or damaged bone (usually osteoporosis). Then the bone breaks when the force is even small (eg when falling from the height of the bed).

Fractures of the shin bones are the most common damage to the bones of the musculoskeletal system

Physiological loss of bone mass begins after the age of 30 and is less than 1 percent. per year (both in women and in men). This happens because, over time, the activity of enzymes taking part in the metabolism of vitamin D and its absorption in the intestines is reduced.

The effect of this is lowering the level of calcium in the blood and increasing the secretion of parathyroid hormone (hormone of the parathyroid glands), which leads to increased bone destruction processes and, as a result, to osteoporosis.

The loss of bone mass in women is most pronounced in the first years after menopause. During this period, women are at risk of fracturing the bones of the wrist.

Fracture of the metacarpal and fingertip bones

Painful and limiting activities are also compression fractures of the spine vertebrae (usually in the lumbar and thoracic region).

Spinal fracture – causes, symptoms, treatment, first aid

They are responsible for the loss of growth. Another risk is the fracture of the femoral neck (usually occurs after the age of 70). As a result of postmenopausal osteoporosis, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, femur and radial are exposed to fractures.

BROKING THE RIBS – how to recognize symptoms? First aid and treatment

Although there are many methods to effectively treat fractures, it is still unclear in which women can be reached.

It is known, however, that the disease is favored by: long-lasting estrogen deficiencies (eg early ovarian failure, hormonal disorders), genetic burden (low bone mass, small and slim women are more vulnerable), sedentary lifestyle, i.e. low physical activity, a diet supplying small doses of vitamin D and calcium, alcohol abuse, smoking cigarettes, drinking large amounts of coffee, long-term therapy with glucocorticoid hormones, for example in the case of bronchial asthma.

Bone fractures – causes. Bone and bone marrow tumors

Bone fractures can be a sign of bone cancer that usually affects young people or 60-year-olds. Bone tumors most often manifest themselves with bone pain, which occurs in the place where the tumor develops (sometimes it can be felt). In addition, the thickening formed on the bones and swelling appears.

Bone marrow cancers, such as multiple myeloma, can also cause bone fractures, but they are one of many symptoms of this cancer. Initially, symptoms appear that can easily be mistaken for a cold.

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There are also bone pain, quite often in the lumbar area, headaches that can be mistaken for migraine. There are also fractures.

The neoplastic proliferation of cells present in the bone marrow contributes to the replacement of healthy cells, resulting in the gradual destruction of bones.

Bone fractures – causes. Fatigue fracture

A special type of fracture is a fatigue fracture, which is caused by repeated bone overloads – most often of the lower limbs.